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In this article, we will focus on how rice is grown, its rotation, tillage, fertilization, crop rotation, harvest, and everything else you need to know about getting the best from your rice growing. So, let us first tell you how the rice is grown.
The rice is grown in huge fields that can be flooded. As rice is a plant of subtropical and tropical areas, the temperature during farming should not fall below 68°F. It needs about 12 hours of daylight, and the main element for successful rice cultivation is water. Rice thrives only with a sufficient amount of water.
Rice is a one-year plant from the broad-leaved grass family, and the most famous of the existing 19 species is Oryza sativa. Like other cereals, rice also has a rosy root, but it is still slightly different in function and structure because it is adapted to live in the water. The secondary root system can grow up to 20 inches deep in the soil, but most develop in the shallower part, at about 6 inches deep. Given that rice is an adaptable plant, it develops more in dry conditions and with less root hair when irrigated.
Rice, like wheat and rye, is primarily used for people’s nutrition because it is easy to digest, has a mild effect on the test track, and does not cause difficulty indigestion. We can get rice in stores as integral dark or refined white. Although brown contains more fiber, vitamin E, phosphorus, and calcium, white rice is a good source of vitamin B, iron, phosphorus, and magnesium. The grain contains about 60 – 70% carbohydrates, about 6 – 8% protein, about 2% fat, about 10% cellulose, and about 6% minerals.
Rice can be successfully grown up to 4900 feet above sea level, provided there is sufficient water for irrigation. Its grain produces starch, powder, alcohol, oil, margarine, vitamins, various chemical and pharmaceutical products. Rice straw is used as a litter, but is also of great value in the production of fine paper, for the manufacture of hats, handbags, shoes, and furniture.
How is rice grown?
In the rest of this article, we will focus on how is rice grown, and what should you do to make it as successful as possible.
Morphological and biological properties of rice
The root is wiry and adapted to life in water. The secondary root system develops from the nodal node. Most roots develop in the shallower part of the soil about 6 inches deep. The stem is made of nodules and internodes, in the lower part, it is hollow and can grow to a height of 20 – 60 inches. The leaf consists of a sleeve that grows much longer than other cereals and plaques. The flowers are shaped into a broom. The fruit is the grain. The rice husk is difficult to digest. The mass of 1 000 grains is about 40 oz. The vegetation length ranges from 3 to 5 months.
Agro-ecological conditions required for rice cultivation
Rice can thrive in areas where the average daily temperature does not fall below 68 °F during vegetation. It starts germinating when the temperature rises above 50 °F, germinates at 86 °F, and does not tolerate temperatures below 32 °F. Favorable temperatures for growth and development range from 77 – 95 °F.
Rice is a short-day plant and grows best in conditions with 12 hours of daylight. It thrives best in conditions with more sunny days.
It can thrive only with irrigation because from the sprouting to the pre-harvest a certain level of water must be provided. Mountain rice (Oryza Montana) thrives without irrigation in areas with over 39 inches of rainfall during the year. The water must be clean, not cooler than 53 °F, and with not more than 1.8% salt concentration. The best water is from rivers, but water from lakes and wells is also used.
It can thrive on different types of soils, but it will give the best results on good fertile soils, with favorable physical and chemical properties. Alluvial and diluvial soils are good for rice. The soil is usually located near rivers, which allows for better and cheaper irrigation. The rice soil must not be more watertight and must be level enough without slope.
Agrotechnics for rice production
Rice can be grown in monoculture as well as in crops. Pre-crops that can thrive behind rice and improve soil fertility should be replaced with rice. Good precultures are alfalfa, clover-grass mixtures, meadow soils, paddocks, some vegetable crops, and legumes.
If the rice is preceded by early precultures, then it plows (immediately after removal of those precultures) to shallow plow (at 8-inch depth). Summer plowing is carried out, at about 8 inches deep and in early autumn deep autumn plowing (at 12 -14 inches deep). Shallow plowing and deep autumn plowing can be done behind the later precultures. In the spring, the soil should be prepared for sowing with a plate and seed harrow, if the soil is in good condition, only by seed harrow.
Mineral fertilizers, primarily complex fertilizers with favorable nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium ratios, are most commonly used in rice fertilization. To achieve high natures (over 11, 0000 lb/h) fertilizer should be given about 286.601 lb/h of nitrogen, 220 – 265 lb/h of phosphorus, and about 220 lb/h of potassium. Due to the specific conditions (irrigation) in which rice is grown, all phosphorus and potassium fertilizers and half of the nitrogen fertilizers should be given before the soil is prepared for sowing, and the rest of the nitrogen fertilizers are given for nutrition.
Irrigation is the most important and expensive measure of care. When sitting in water, the water level is 1-2 inches. During the drilling process, the same layer of water is sufficient. In humidity, the water layer increases to about 6 inches, and in the brooming about 6 – 8 inches. The storage can be done during the drilling phase, and at that time the water is drained for a few days and then released again. At full maturity, 7 – 10 days before harvest, the soil is dried to allow harvesting.
It is recommended that the seeds be exposed to the sun and ventilated before sowing. The sowing time depends on the area in which it is grown. Rice can be sewn by hand in the water, or by sowing in normally prepared soil, by producing and transplanting seedlings.
For manual sowing in water, the rice seeds must first be moistened for at least six hours in order for the seed to absorb water and sink immediately. Before sowing, the water is blurred and then sown. The water level is 1 – 2 inches. Manual sowing requires about 400 lb/h of seed.
Sowing with a seeder can be done 15 days earlier than manual sowing. The spacing between rows is about 6 inches, and the density of the assembly is about 600 germinated grains per 10 ft². The depth of sowing is 0.4 – 0.8 inches and about 352 lb/h of seed is required.
Seedlings need to be produced for transplanting. 5400 ft2 of seedlings need about 88 lbs of seed, which is enough to produce seedlings for 1 ha. The transplants are permanently transplanted when they grow above 5 inches in height. They are placed in rows at a distance of about 20 cm, and the distance in a row about 8 inches, together with 3 – 4 plants.
Rice is harvested at full maturity. The earlier assortment ripens in early September and later in the second half of September. When the soil is sufficiently dried, after the water has been drained, it is harvested by hand or by harvesters. If the grain has more than 14% water, it should be dried. Rice can yield very high yields of as much as 22,000 lbs.
Diseases and pests
When growing rice, care must be taken to control weeds and algae that may occur due to high water levels. Weeds are mostly destroyed by weeding or rising water levels, and if they are more resistant, herbicides can be used to control them.
As for algae, they can be harvested by hand or removed with appropriate chemical agents, mainly based on elm or copper sulfate. On very large areas weeds and algae are suppressed by airplanes so that more resources are released at a time in one flight.
Rice in the kitchen
Rice should always be cooked before consumption. It is boiled in brine, in a ratio of 1: 3. In addition to cooking, it can also be cooked by roasting or baking in the oven, but it must be covered with water or broth to swell and become soft.
In our area, the most famous dish is rice risotto. Risotto can be prepared with the addition of various foods, such as fish, meat, mushrooms, vegetables, and seafood. Rice is the mainstay of many dishes in Asian cuisine, and an indispensable ingredient in sushi.
Cooked rice can be used to prepare a variety of balls or as a side dish for meat, wild animals, fish, and vegetables. In addition to preparing various savory dishes, it is also used in desserts. The most famous sweet dish with this cereal is rice on milk, but it can also be made with pumpkin, ice cream, or pudding. Ice cream or rice pancakes are a well-known dessert in Thailand, while rice pudding is eaten in England.
Rice is also made from flour that can muffins be made from, sweet bread, and other types of cake. In our country, rice flakes with milk are often consumed at breakfast. There are about 360 calories in 3.5 oz of rice so it can be said to have the highest energy value of all cereals.
The medicinal properties of rice
Rice is high in carbohydrates, mostly starchy, but contains a low amount of fat and protein. Vitamins included in rice are B6, niacin, riboflavin, and thiamine, while from minerals there are phosphorus, manganese, zinc, selenium, magnesium, and iron. Since most of these nutrients are in the rice sheath, less processed or brown rice is much healthier than white. The germs of rice, which contain almost all Group B vitamins and Vitamin E, are especially healthy.
Rice contains very little sodium and potassium so it can be consumed by people who need to limit their salt intake. Therefore, it is recommended for people who are treated for kidney disease.
Regular consumption of rice helps regulate blood pressure, prevent heart attack and maintain the health of blood vessels by increasing their elasticity. It also helps with atherosclerosis and is also recommended for pregnant women because of vitamin B.
It is a nutritious and easily digestible cereal, and since it contains no cholesterol at all, it is considered a dietary food. The rice starch already turns into sugar in the mouth, and in the stomach, it breaks down completely after two hours. Rice is non-allergenic and gluten-free so it is extremely mild to the gut flora. This is why it can be eaten with any serious digestive problems such as vomiting, diarrhea, and the like. Boiled rice is actually thought to be great for stopping diarrhea.