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The development of the industry has failed to eradicate persistent farmers who work hard in their fields from year to year. Growing crops is a very demanding job that lasts all year round. Summer periods are the hardest because most crops are harvested at that time, but farming is much more than a summer harvest. Have you ever wondered how do farmers grow crops?
Farmers grow crops by following the steps in the farming cycle. Before planting, the farmers choose the crop to plant, prepare the soil, and select the seeds. During plant growth, they irrigate it and add fertilizers if they notice a nutritional deficit. When the crop is mature, it’s time for harvest.
Growing crops will vary from country to country. In some areas, cocoa will grow better, while in other areas it will be very difficult to grow cocoa, so the farmer will plant wheat, for example. Also, the time of planting crops depends on the weather conditions and the climate that prevails in a particular area, so before planting any type of plant, it is necessary to know the weather conditions. Growing crops is a very demanding job, and success depends on many external conditions that the farmer cannot influence. The knowledge and experience of a farmer can help him to have the best possible crops.
Growing crops – step by step
Before planting crosses, it is necessary to determine what will be planted in a particular field. For this decision it is necessary to take into account the dba factors:
• What can be planted given local conditions?
To choose what to plant, it is necessary to know the local climate, landscape, microorganisms in the soil, plants, and animals in the area where the farmer will plant crops. Not every crop can be planted anywhere in the world. It can, but not successfully. To grow crops, the farmer must know how much rain falls annually in a particular area, which crops correspond to dry and which moist soil, which crops grow well together, and what nutrients the crop needs. The decision can sometimes be very difficult, but as people have been farming for thousands of years, it is roughly known which crops thrive in which areas making it easier for farmers to choose.
• What will be the easiest to sell on the market?
There is no point in producing crops that are not in demand, so when choosing a crop, it is necessary to consider which crop will sell best in a particular market. It is of course possible to export crops abroad, but this is not an option for all farmers, so you need to analyze the market well and decide on the crop that will be easiest to sell at reasonable prices. It is useful to consider for which crops the state provides incentives. If your budget doesn’t allow for a lot of choices, for some crops government releases prices of the crop at the time of seeding so this may be your best choice.
For the harvest to be successful, before we think of planting crops, it is necessary to prepare the soil. Soil preparation affects the quality of crops. Also, it helps to control weeds, recycles plant nutrients, and provides suitable soil for direct seeding. Land preparation is the mechanical tillage of soil in such a way that the soil is loosened, turned, and mixed.
Depending on what was previously planted on the land, soil tillage will begin with shallow or deep plowing. The purpose of tillage is to achieve a quality soil structure and to create a seedbed in the surface layer to a depth of sowing. Ultimately, the conditions for the germination and easy sprouting of seeds are achieved.
Organic and mineral fertilizers and plant residues are then added to the soil to make it nutritious and ready for planting seeds.
Once you’ve chosen a crop, it’s time to pick a seed. Each crop has many types of seeds. Farmers choose the seeds that best suit the climatic conditions in which they are planted. Besides, it is necessary to choose the types of seeds that will reduce using pesticides and have the least diseases that affect crops before harvest. Seed selection affects the quality of crops produced and facilitates crop care throughout the year.
Soil testing before planting can help determine the best seeds for a particular soil. Knowing the composition of the soil allows the selection of seeds that suit the soil resulting in better crops. Poor seed selection will require the use of numerous fertilizers, pesticides, and supplements that are extremely expensive. The use of such products reduces the quality of the crop, so it is better to think carefully about the choice of seeds in the beginning and not to take risks with any seeds.
Sowing is the process of placing a seed in the soil in order to germinate and grow into the plant. Each type of crop has a specific time when it is best to plant it. Special care should be taken with the weather conditions when planting in order for the seeds to germinate successfully.
There are several methods for the sowing of seeds: broadcasting, dibbling, drilling, and sowing behind the country plow.
Broadcasting is the oldest method by which seeds are spread on the soil. It can be done manually or via a mechanical spread or airplane. The method is inexpensive, but the seeds are not evenly distributed which can eventually lead to non-uniform seed germination.
Dibbling is a method by which seeds are placed in holes that are equally spaced and deep. This method requires less seed but requires a lot of time, money, and labor.
Drilling is a method of dropping seeds into holes and then covering them with soil. It can be done in rows or at a certain distance and is done using a seed drill. Fertilizers and amendments can be added immediately during drilling.
Sowing behind the country plow is a method that has been used for centuries. First, the soil is plowed with a country plow and then the person manually places the seed into furrows in the field.
In order for crops to grow, they need to be irrigated at the right time. Irrigation is the process of applying controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals. Places where rain rarely or seasonally could not sustain agriculture without irrigation.
Irrigation helps the growth of agricultural crops in periods when there are long periods without large amounts of rain. Also, irrigation allows farmers to plant crops regularly, thus ensuring a regular food supply.
There are four conditions that affect plant growth: light, water, temperature, and nutrients. These elements affect the plant growth hormones and because of them, the plant can grow fast or slow. Crop growth also depends on the ability of the crop to capture CO2, the capacity of the root system to capture water and nutrients, and the ability of the crop to transform resources into dry matter.
When we know what a crop needs to grow, it is clear that a lack of any element can lead to stunted growth or changes in growth. It is very important to study the growth and notice any changes in the crops in time in order to react in time and prevent permanent damage.
Fertilizing will definitely help in the growth of plants. If we notice that the plant grows poorly and has satisfied conditions such as water, light, and no weather, the problem is probably a lack of nutrients. Without fertilizers, nature struggles to replenish the nutrients in the soil.
Three minerals are most commonly used for fertilizing: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. For example, if there is no nitrogen in the soil, the plant cannot get the necessary nutrients so a nitrogen fertilizer is added. Potassium is located deep below the soil surface, if the soil is not well plowed or has very small amounts of potassium, the root of the plant will not reach it and therefore it will need a little help from fertilizers.
Which fertilizer you will need depends on the type of crop that you are growing and those nutrient deficits in a specific soil. Plants that grow in nutritionally deficient areas will be smaller and grow more slowly than those found in nutrient-rich soil.
Harvesting used to be the hardest part of growing crops. It was also the most beautiful part because the farmer could finally see the product of their efforts they had invested during the year. When the crops have grown enough, it is time to harvest them. Harvesting is the process of removing entire plants or economic parts after maturity. In the modern age instead of human hands for harvesting use machine systems called harvesters which cut the crop.
After that, it is time for threshing which is separating the paddy grain from the rest of the cut crop. It can be combined with other machinery that cleans the grain as well by removing immature, unfilled materials. The cut crop is then moved for transport and storage.