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Not all species of rice need water to grow, but almost all do. Not only that rice needs water for it to grow, but it can also be planted in water, and grow directly from it, sort of.
When maintaining rice plantations, it is paramount to ensure that you have the right amount of water. If grown in water, the same levels as during sowing, ie 1 to 2 inches, is maintained during the tillering phase. During the rolling, the level should be increased to 6 inches and in the brooming stage up to 8 inches. Continue reading our text to find out more about growing rice in the water.
Rice, like wheat and rye, is primarily used for human consumption because it is easily digestible, has a mild effect on the digestive tract and does not cause any difficulty indigestion. We can get rice in stores as integral dark or refined white. Although brown contains more fiber, vitamin E, phosphorus and calcium, white rice is a good source of vitamin B, iron, phosphorus and magnesium. Grains contain about 60 – 70% carbohydrates, about 6 – 8% protein, about 2% fat, about 10% cellulose and about 6% minerals.
Morphological and biological properties of rice
The root is wiry and adapted to life in water. The secondary root system develops from the nodal node. Most roots develop in the shallower part of the soil about 6 inches deep. The stem is made of nodules and internodes, in the lower part is hollow and can grow in height from 20 to 60 inches. The leaf consists of a sleeve that grows much longer than other cereals and leaf blades. The flowers are shaped into a broom. The fruit is the grain. The rice husk is difficult to digest. The vegetation length ranges from 3 to 5 months.
Growing rice in water
Just to be clear, rice isn’t actually planted in the water. It is planted into the soil on fields, and then later those same fields are flooded with water. Because of this flooding, rice is said to use a lot of water, about two and a half times the amount of water needed to grow a crop of wheat or maize
It can thrive only with irrigation because from the sprouting to the pre-harvest a certain level of water must be provided. Mountain rice (Oryza Montana) thrives without irrigation in areas with over 1 000 mm of rainfall during the year. The water must be clean, not cooler than 55 °F and with not more than 1.8% salt concentration. The best water is from rivers, but water from lakes and wells is also used. The required amount of water is about 20,000 – 30,000 m3/ha.
It can thrive on different types of soils, but it will give the best crops on good fertile soils, with favorable physical and chemical properties. Alluvial and diluvial soils are good for rice. The soil is usually located near rivers, which allows for better and cheaper irrigation. The rice soil must not be more watertight and must be level enough without slope.
At the time of planting, it can be replenished with nitrogen, before which the water is lowered for a few days and then raised again after feeding. Ten days before the harvest, the soil of the plantation is dried out so that the harvest can be done.
Harvesting rice from water
When the rice plant comes to full maturity, it is time to harvest. If harvested too early, the grains will not be of good quality, and if done too late, there is a risk of laying down and consequently greater losses. For the earlier varieties, harvesting takes place in early September and later in late September. After the water is removed from the plantation and the soil is dried, the harvest is done mostly by hand, except in the case of large crops when it can also be done by harvesters.
If after the harvest, rice grains have more than 14% water, then they must be dried and then optimally stored.
Interesting facts about rice
Rice has been grown for over 6500 years. It originates in India and China, from where it first spread to Syria and east Africa, and then to Europe. Although it grows best in tropical and subtropical climates, some European countries are also known for growing rice, such as Italy and Macedonia, as they have a large number of sunny days and warmer climates. There rice was grown in the 8th century, although it was brought to Greece by Alexander the Great, in the 4th century BC.
Rice is also grown in America today. About 600 million tonnes of rice are produced annually worldwide, mostly in China, India, and Indonesia. Water is most important for growing rice, and to this day, human power is mainly used to cultivate plantations as opposed to machine farming.
Throughout history, rice is thought to have fed more people than any other crop and, with wheat, is the most valuable grain. It is very easily digestible, which is why it does not cause digestive problems and is therefore grown mainly for human consumption. In addition, rice is also used for the production of starch, alcohol, margarine, vitamins and powders, various pharmaceutical and chemical products. The dried rice stalks, that is, the rice straw, produce rice paper, known for its fineness, and various furniture, bags, shoes, hats and the like.
In 1999, a GMO variety called Golden Rice was created, to which carotene was added, making it a special color. It is envisioned that carotene is converted to vitamin A by cooking and that the production of this rice is relocated to developing countries. Although this rice was said to be of high quality, its cultivation failed due to insufficient publicity of the actual quality, impact on health and the like, given its genetic modification. In China, even the law prohibits the testing of this rice on children.