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What is artificial insemination, what is the importance of the development of animal husbandry, how to choose cows, and what depends on the success of insemination? In this article, we will tell you everything you need to know about artificial insemination and its importance for livestock development.
Artificial insemination of domestic animals is the biotechnological method that has the most rapidly improved livestock development. This progress is reflected primarily in zoo hygiene, zootechnical, veterinary, medical, and economic importance. Given this importance, it is no wonder that it is applicable in all developed and even less developed livestock countries.
Artificial insemination is the instrumental introduction of sperm into the sexual organs of the female, thereby achieving the approximation of sperm and ova without sexual intercourse. It has multiple implications for livestock breeding and superiority over natural mating. In particular, the following four facts should be kept in mind.
Zootechnical significance. By applying insemination, a qualitative change in the breed composition of the livestock can be achieved relatively quickly. Elite breedings are used to a much greater extent to correct and increase production properties in offspring than in natural mating. The major importance of insemination is that inherited traits-breeding genomes such as high milk yield, milk fat, large daily meat gain, and fertility are massively transmitted to the entire animal population.
Zoohygienic significance. Insemination is a reliable zoo-hygienic zooprophylaxis method of combating and eradicating sexually transmitted infections and other infectious and parasitic diseases. The application of insemination breaks the contact between animals as sexual partners, and therefore the possibility of spreading and transmitting sexual infections that cause infertility of animals (vibriosis, trichomoniasis, brucellosis, tuberculosis, epivagus, etc.).
Veterinary-medical significance. Insemination is a veterinary medical method for many reasons. First of all, the act of insemination is a gynecological endeavor, the hygienic introduction of sperm into the female genitalia is aimed at fertilizing and preventing infections in animals. The use of insemination increases the fertility of animals, as their reproductive capacity is controlled.
Economic significance. The aim of insemination is to increase livestock production; in cattle breeding, it is the production of calves and milk. By insemination, far more offspring are obtained than with natural mating. Production genomes are transmitted to the entire offspring of cattle. The costs for artificial insemination are incomparably lower than for natural dock.
Of the cows reported or brought in for insemination, only those with clinically established estrus are inseminated. Therefore, the insemination of cows includes:
- examination of the genital organs
- introduction of sperm into the sexual organs
How to choose cows for insemination?
The selection of cows for insemination is done by clinical examination. Pre-insemination inspection of the cows consists of anamnesis, vaginal and rectal examination, and, if necessary, a special laboratory examination of oestrus mucus. When taking an anamnesis, it is important to determine for each individual cow the following: the time of the onset of sexual embers (oestrus), the signs and degrees of manifestation of oestrus, the date and course of the last calving, whether the placenta was ejected at the time when the cow showed the first sexual embers after calving. Particular attention should be paid to the onset of oestrus in order to determine the optimal insemination time.
Equally important is data on the symptoms and intensity of sexual fervor (denying milk, jumping on other animals and humans, expelling estrus mucus from the vagina, etc.). In addition to data on the sexual life of the cows, information on feeding and keeping, health status, etc. should be taken. At the vaginal examination, four basic symptoms of sexual embers need to be considered: open cervix, oestrous mucus, hyperemia, and sliminess of the mucous membrane of the vagina and cervix. In cows outside the sexual urge, these symptoms are not pronounced.
What determines the success of insemination?
Particular attention should be paid to oestrus mucus, which in cows must be clear, stretchy, and tough without any admixture. If pus, blood, mucus is observed in oestrus phlegm, such cow should not be inseminated but treated. Rectal examination before insemination determines estrus and excludes other abnormal physiological and pathological conditions of the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries.
Success depends on the right moment of insemination, that is, the determination of the optimal moment when it is done. The optimal fertilization moment of a cow depends on three factors: the moment of ovulation (release of the egg from the ovary), the length of life of the sperm in the sexual organs of the cow, and the duration of fertilization of the egg. Under normal circumstances, ovulation in a cow usually occurs 20-30 hours after the onset of sexual embers or an average of 7.7 hours after the end of oestrus. The sperm of the bull live in the sexual organs of the cow, usually 10-16 hours, a maximum of 29 hours.
In addition, the sperm of the bull should spend at least 6 hours in the sexual channels of the cow to gain fertilization. The ovum of the cow remains capable of fertilization 6 to 12 hours (maximum 20 hours) after ovulation. In practice, in the morning and evening insemination of cows is carried out. It is recommended that in cows who have sex with oestrus in the morning, insemination should take place in the afternoon or in the evening, and in cows that have sex with oestrus in the afternoon or in the evening, insemination will take place the next morning.
Success also depends on the technique of dissolving the seed as it must dissolve at a temperature of 100 to 104 °F for 20 to 30 seconds. Also, successful insemination depends on the proper insertion of the seed into the reproductive organs of the cow.